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Premedicine BSc. (summa cum laude) Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, USA Medical Degree (MD) (magna cum laude), Shiraz Medical School, Shiraz, IRAN Surgery Specialty, (second ranked national board), Shiraz Medical School, Shiraz, IRAN Subspecialty Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School Dallas, TX, USA Professor of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitative Surgery Rofeideh Rehabilitaion Hospital-Gheytarieh-Neamati St.
As the nanoparticles stimulate the olfactory mucosa, an electrochemical initiation will start. The message as an afferent stimulus, passes through the ethmoid bone cribriform plate for delivering such memorandum toward the central nervous system. Sense of smell will be detected and translated to a pleasant and or non- pleasant memory narration. Head injures such as coup-counter coup in a blunt trauma, central nervous system`s infections such different types of meningitis, tumors and surgical shocks such as some nasal operations, may be considered as some the most common cause of olfactory nerve damages. Regeneration of olfactory nerve after the damages due to the aforementioned causes, depends on the cause and the degrees of the damage. Some sever injuries may even cause complete loss and/or a permanent loss of smell(anosmia). Some complete losses me gradually regenerate from anosmia to hyposmia and lead to complete recovery of smell functioning (norm Osmia). We did examine olfactory nerve damage in patients who underwent open rhinoplasty in the past. The enquiry paper was published in November 2008 in PubMed. We sought to investigate "when" the olfactory function recovers to its normal preoperative levels. In this cohort design, 40 of 65 esthetic open rhinoplasty candidates with equal gender distribution, who met the inclusion criteria, were assessed for their olfactory function using the Smell Identification Test (SIT) with 40 culturally familiar odors in sniffing bottles. All the patients were evaluated for the SIT scores preoperatively and postoperatively (at week 1, week 6, and month 6). At postoperative week one, 87.5% of the patients had anosmia, and the rest exhibited at least moderate levels of hyposmia. The anosmia, which was the dominant pattern at postoperative week 1, resolved and converted to various levels of hyposmia, so that no one at postoperative week 6 showed any such complain. At postoperative week six, 85% of the subjects experienced degrees of hyposmia, almost all being mild to moderate. At postoperative six month, the olfactory function had already reverted to the preoperative levels: no anosmia or moderate to severe hyposmia. A repeated ANOVA was indicative of significant differences in the olfactory function at the different time points. According to our post hoc Benfronney, the preoperative scores had a significant difference with those at postoperative week 1, week 6, but not with the ones at month 6. Thus, the primary cosmetic open rhinoplasty may be accompanied by some degrees of postoperative olfactory dysfunction. Patients need a time interval of 6 weeks to 6 months to fully recover from surgical manipulation and respective edema into their preoperative baseline olfactory function.